Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure Essential Businesses Amidst Covid -19 Using Network Optimization Models
Richard Job Madapat Job, Quintin Williams Jr., Michael Cailas, Matthew Liotine, Jim Novotny
Pages - 289 - 307     |    Revised - 19-08-2021     |    Published - 01-10-2021
Volume - 12   Issue - 5    |    Publication Date - October 2021  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Critical Infrastructure Business, COVID-19, Network Optimization Models, Pharmaceutical Industries, Supply Chain.
ABSTRACT
This study evaluates the use of network optimization models in an essential infrastructure business during a pandemic. As per the Cyber Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), there are 16 critical infrastructure sectors whose assets, systems, and networks, whether physical or virtual, are considered vital to the United States. Their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating effect on the security, national economic security, national public health or safety, or any combination thereof.

For this study, we primarily focus on the Healthcare and Public Health Sector (HPH). This branch is considered a core sector as it protects the economy from threats such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. This evaluation provides insights into the network optimization models used by a pharmaceutical company in administrating vaccinations to its local community during the COVID-19 pandemic. The intended result of the study is to provide an optimized delivery strategy by understanding the pros and cons of the network model that is being used currently and suggest a better strategical network model if available to administrate the vaccination program safely and efficiently throughout the United States.
1 refSeek 
2 BibSonomy 
3 Google Scholar 
4 J-Gate 
5 Scribd 
6 SlideShare 
Aassve, A., Alfani, G., Gandolfi, F., & Le Moglie, M. (2021). Epidemics and trust: The case of the Spanish flu. Health Economics, 30(4), 840–857. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.4218.
Accenture: Next Generation Digital Procurement: Procurement. Supply Chain Digital. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://supplychaindigital.com/procurement/accenture-next-generation-digital-procurement.
Amaral, J., & Kuettner, D. (2008). Analyzing Supply Chains at HP using spreadsheet models. Interfaces, 38(4), 228–240. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.1070.0336.
Apser, S. (1970, January 1). Forbes Magazine: Amazon's net profit soars 84% with sales hitting $386 billion . Amazon's Net Profit Soars 84% With Sales Hitting $386 Billion - Forbes ~. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://withlinksa.blogspot.com/2021/02/amazons-net-profit-soars-84-with-sales.html.
Barabαsi, A.-L. (2009). Scale-free networks: A Decade and beyond. Science, 325(5939), 412–413. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1173299.
Brown, G., Carlyle, M., Salmerσn, J., & Wood, K. (2006). Defending critical infrastructure. Interfaces, 36(6), 530–544. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.1060.0252.
Brown, G., Keegan, J., Vigus, B., & Wood, K. (2001). The Kellogg Company optimizes production, inventory, and Distribution. Interfaces, 31(6), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.31.6.1.9646.
Callaway, E. (2020). The race for Coronavirus Vaccines: A graphical guide. Nature, 580(7805), 576–577. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-020-01221-y.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, September 23). Covid-19 vaccination Federal Retail Pharmacy Partnership Program. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/covid-19/retail-pharmacy-program/index.html.
CIO Insight. (2021, May 12). Insight 3J trucking company network resilience. CIO Insight. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://www.cioinsight.com/news-trends/billion-dollar-bidding-begins-in-wireless-auction/.
Cohen, R., Havlin, S., & ben-Avraham, D. (2003). Efficient immunization strategies for computer networks and populations. Physical Review Letters, 91(24). https://doi.org/10.1103/physrevlett.91.247901.
Craighead, C. W., Blackhurst, J., Rungtusanatham, M. J., & Handfield, R. B. (2007). The severity of supply chain disruptions: Design Characteristics and Mitigation Capabilities. Decision Sciences, 38(1), 131–156. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2007.00151.x.
Department of Homeland Security, Critical Infrastructure Security. (2008). Hack explained Government Agencies Cyber Security: Course hero. hack explained government agencies cyber security | Course Hero. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://www.coursehero.com/file/p7kb8idn/businessinsidercomsolarwinds-hack-explained-government-agencies-cyber-security/.
Dushoff, J., Plotkin, J. B., Viboud, C., Simonsen, L., Miller, M., Loeb, M., & Earn, D. J. (2007). Vaccinating to protect a vulnerable subpopulation. PLoS Medicine, 4(5). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040174.
Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON) . (2004, February 9). The Economic Impacts of the August 2003 Blackout . Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://elcon.org/wp-content/uploads/Economic20Impacts20of20August20200320Blackout1.pdf. Environment Systems and Decisions, 40(2), 222–243. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-020-09777-w.
Golan, M. S., Jernegan, L. H., & Linkov, I. (2020). Trends and applications of Resilience Analytics in supply chain modeling: Systematic literature review in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Gong, J., Mitchell, J. E., Krishnamurthy, A., & Wallace, W. A. (2014). An interdependent layered network model for a resilient supply chain. Omega, 46, 104–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2013.08.002.
Gupta, V., Peters, E., Miller, T., & Blyden, K. (2002). Implementing a distribution-network decision-support system at Pfizer/Warner-Lambert. Interfaces, 32(4), 28–45. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.32.4.28.54.
Hillier, F. S., & Liebermann, G. J. (1997). Operations research. https://doi.org/10.1524/9783486792089.
International Civil Aviation Organization . Economic Impacts of COVID-19 on Civil Aviation. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://www.icao.int/sustainability/Pages/Economic-Impacts-of-COVID-19.aspx.
Lamprou, D. A. (2020). Emerging technologies for diagnostics and drug delivery in the fight against COVID-19 and other pandemics. Expert Review of Medical Devices, 17(10), 1007–1012. https://doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2020.1792287.
Lewis, T. G. (2020). Chapter 4: Networks. In Critical Infrastructure Protection in homeland security: Defending a networked nation (pp. 71–117). essay, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Liu, S., & Papageorgiou, L. G. (2013). Multiobjective optimisation of production, distribution and capacity planning of global supply chains in the process industry. Omega, 41(2), 369–382. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2012.03.007.
NCRID: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, July 6). Immunization and respiratory diseases (NCIRD) . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/ncird/index.html.
Pan, F., & Nagi, R. (2010). Robust supply chain design under uncertain demand in Agile Manufacturing. Computers & Operations Research, 37(4), 668–683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2009.06.017.
Pan, F., & Nagi, R. (2013). Multi-echelon supply chain network design in Agile Manufacturing. Omega, 41(6), 969–983. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omega.2012.12.004.
Peck, H. (2005). Drivers of Supply Chain Vulnerability: An integrated framework. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 35(4), 210–232. https://doi.org/10.1108/09600030510599904.
Rothan, H. A., & Byrareddy, S. N. (2020). The epidemiology and pathogenesis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. Journal of Autoimmunity, 109, 102433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102433.
Sheffi, Y. (2005). Preparing for the big one [Supply Chain Management]. Manufacturing Engineer, 84(5), 12–15. https://doi.org/10.1049/me:20050503.
Sheffi, Y. (2018). Preparing for the worst. Springer Series in Supply Chain Management, 155–168. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-03813-7_9.
Sheridan, C. (2020). Fast, portable tests come online to curb coronavirus pandemic. Nature Biotechnology, 38(5), 515–518. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41587-020-00010-2.
Singh Srai, J., & Gregory, M. (2008). A Supply Network Configuration Perspective on International Supply Chain Development. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 28(5), 386–411. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570810867178.
Snyder, L. V., Scaparra, M. P., Daskin, M. S., & Church, R. L. (2006). Planning for disruptions in Supply Chain Networks. Models, Methods, and Applications for Innovative Decision Making, 234–257. https://doi.org/10.1287/educ.1063.0025.
Troyer, L., Smith, J., Marshall, S., Yaniv, E., Tayur, S., Barkman, M., Kaya, A., & Liu, Y. (2005). Improving Asset Management and order fulfillment at Deere & Company's C&CE division. Interfaces, 35(1), 76–87. https://doi.org/10.1287/inte.1040.0110.
Walker-Roberts, S., Hammoudeh, M., & Dehghantanha, A. (2018). A systematic review of the availability and efficacy of countermeasures to internal threats in healthcare critical infrastructure. IEEE Access, 6, 25167–25177. https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2018.2817560.
Watts, D. J. (1999). Networks, dynamics, and the small-world phenomenon. American Journal of Sociology, 105(2), 493–527. https://doi.org/10.1086/210318.
Worldometer Coronavirus worldwide graphs. (n.d.). Retrieved February 2, 2021, from https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/worldwide-graphs/.
Zhan, J., Rafalski, T., Stashkevich, G., & Verenich, E. (2017). Vaccination allocation in large dynamic networks. Journal of Big Data, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40537-016-0061-4.
Zhu, G., Chou, M. C., & Tsai, C. W. (2020). Lessons learned from the covid-19 pandemic exposing the shortcomings of current supply chain operations: A long-term prescriptive offering. Sustainability, 12(14), 5858. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12145858.
Mr. Richard Job Madapat Job
Martin Brower - United States of America
richardmj95@gmail.com
Professor Quintin Williams Jr.
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois - United States of America
Dr. Michael Cailas
Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois - United States of America
Dr. Matthew Liotine
Department of Information & Decision Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois - United States of America
Dr. Jim Novotny
Department of Information & Decision Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois - United States of America