Home   >   CSC-OpenAccess Library   >    Manuscript Information
Does The Development of The Country Drive The Consumer Behavior? A Two-Country Study
Adamashvili Nino, Shervashidze Salome, Salvatore Fiorella Pia
Pages - 34 - 49     |    Revised - 01-02-2021     |    Published - 01-04-2021
Volume - 12   Issue - 2    |    Publication Date - April 2021  Table of Contents
MORE INFORMATION
KEYWORDS
Functional Food, Consumer Management, Awareness, Questionnaire.
ABSTRACT
Consumer behavior varies country by country as it is strongly affected by nationality. Meaning, the groups of people form specific place in a given period of time have similar practices and a common way of thinking. It reflects on their decision-making processes and daily habits, also when purchasing products and services.

The goal of this paper is to investigate if there is a significant difference between the consumer behavior attitudes regarding development level of the countries. Furthermore, the paper seeks to identify the main factors affecting their consumer behaviors.

In order to reach the research aims, this study consists of a survey on 604 consumers of Italian and Georgian populations. The respondents from Italy and Georgia are analyzed separately and compared.

The results obtained from questionnaire are a bit paradoxical in case of Georgia. It seems that, unlikely to Italian consumers, they are not aware of the issues related to food quality, labeling and certification and these consumers make spontaneous decisions non-consciously. Therefore, raising of awareness level and cognitive activities regarding nutrition may affect purchasing behavior.
1 EconPapers 
2 refSeek 
3 IDEAS 
4 ResearchGate 
5 J-Gate 
6 Google Scholar 
7 Scribd 
8 Index Copernicus International (ICI) 
A. Azzurra, V. Riccardo & K. Artur. “Factors affecting parents’ choices of functional foods targeted for children”. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 40 no. 5, pp. 527–535. 2016.
A. Festila & P. Chrysochou. “Implicit communication of food product healthfulness through package design: A content analysis”. Journal of Consumer Behaviour Vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 461-476. 2018.
A. Holmberg, B. Lorenc, and P. Werner. “Contact strategies to improve participation via the web in a mixed-mode mail and web survey”. Journal of Official Statistics Vol. 26, pp. 465–80. 2010.
A. Krystallis, G. Maglaras & S Mamalis. “Motivations and cognitive structures of consumers in their purchasing of functional foods”. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 19 no. 6, pp. 525–538. 2008.
A.A. Feil, C.C.D.S. Cyrne, F.C.W. Sindelar, J.E. Barden & M. Dalmoro. “Profiles of sustainable food consumption: Consumer behavior toward organic food in southern region of brazil”. Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 258. 2020.
A.C.S. Anusha, R. Tunung, C. Kavita, A. Ribka & M. Chandrika. “Ready-to-eat food consumption practices, food safety knowledge and relation to gender and education level of consumers in kuala lumpur, Malaysia”. Food Research, Vol. 4 no. 5, pp. 1537-1544. 2020.
B. Mghebrishvili & E. Urotadze. “Characteristics of Food Products Labeling in Georgia”. International Scientific Symposium Economics, Business & Finance. Jurmala, Latvia, 2016. Pp.135-138.
B. Morales-Nin, F. Cardona-Pons, A.M. Grau, E. García, I. Alvarez, & S. Pérez-Mayol, "Does angling activity influence consumer choices of fresh fish?", British Food Journal, vol. 115, no. 7, pp. 1054-1066. 2013.
B.L. Berg. “Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences”, 7th ed. Allyn 8c Bacon. California State University, Long Beach. 2009.
Ball, K., Crawford, D., Mishra, G. “Socio-economic inequalities in women's fruit and vegetable intakes: A multilevel study of individual, social and environmental mediators”. Public Health Nutrition Vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 623-630. 2006.
Bray, J. P. “Consumer Behaviour Theory: Approaches and Models”. Discussion Paper. Unpublished. (Unpublished), http://eprints.bournemouth.ac.uk/10107/. 2008.
C.C. Gravlee. “Mobile Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing with Handheld Computers: The Entryware System 3.0.” Field Methods Vol. 14 no. 3, pp. 322-336. 2002.
C.T.J. Lin, Y. Zhang, E.D. Carlton & S.C. Lo. “2014 FDA Health and Diet Survey”. Internet: www.fda.gov: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/food/foodscienceresearch/consumerbehaviorresearch/ucm497251.pdf. May 6, 2016 [Jan 6, 2021]
Canavari, M. & Coderoni, S. "Consumer stated preferences for dairy products with carbon footprint labels in Italy", Agricultural and Food Economics, vol. 8, no. 1. 2020.
Cappelli, L., D'Ascenzo, F., Arezzo, M.F., Ruggieri, R. & Gorelova, I. "The willingness to pay in the food sector. Testing the hypothesis of consumer preferences for some made in Italy products", Sustainability (Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 15. 2020
D. Joshi, S. Roy & S. Banerjee. “Prebiotics: A Functional Food in Health and Disease”. Natural Products and Drug Discovery. Pp. 507–523. 2018.
Darmon N & Drewnowski A. “Does social class predict diet quality?” Am J Clin Nutr.;87(5):1107–17. 2008.
De Temmerman, J., Heeremans, E., Slabbinck, H. & Vermeir, I. "The impact of the Nutri-Score nutrition label on perceived healthiness and purchase intentions", Appetite, vol. 157. 2021.
Dibsdall, L.A., Lambert, N., Bobbin, R.F., Frewer, L.J. “Low-income consumers' attitudes and behaviour towards access, availability and motivation to eat fruit and vegetables”. Public Health Nutrition Vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 159-168. 2003
E. Carrillo, V. Prado-Gascó, S. Fiszman & P. Varela. “Why buying functional foods? Understanding spending behaviour through structural equation modelling”. Food Research International, Vo. 50 no. 1, pp. 361–368. 2013.
E. Hobin, B. Bollinger, J. Sacco, E. Liebman, L. Vanderlee, F. Zuo, L. Rosella M. L’Abbe H. Manson & D. Hammond. “Consumers’ Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice”. The Milbank Quarterly Vol 95, no. 3, pp. 494-534. 2017.
E. Pitt, D. Gallego, T. Comans, C. Cameron & L. Thornton. “Exploring the influence of local food environments on food behaviours: a systematic review of qualitative literature”. Public Health Nutrition Vol. 20 no. 13, pp. 2393–2405. 2017.
E.P. Köster. “Diversity in the determinants of food choice: A psychological perspective”. Food Quality and Preference Vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 70-82. 2009.
F. Bimbo, A. Bonanno, G. Nocella, R. Viscecchia, G. Nardone, B. De Devitiis & D. Carlucci. “Consumers’ acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products: A systematic review”. Appetite, Vol. 113, pp. 141–154. 2017.
Furno, M., Del Giudice, T. & Cicia, G. "Organic consumers’ profile beyond the mean", Organic Agriculture, 2021.
G. Ares & A. Gámbaro. “Influence of gender, age and motives underlying food choice on perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods”. Appetite, Vol. 49 no. 1, pp. 148–158. 2007.
G. Gogsadze. “Population Geography” 2nd ed. TSU, Tbilisis Iv. Javakhishvili State University, Tbilisi, Georgia. 2018. Internet: https://www.tsu.ge/data/file_db/faculty_social_political/gogsadze.pdf
G. H. Nielsen. “We are what we eat - Healthy eating trends around the world”. Internet: https://www.nielsen.com/content/dam/nielsenglobal/eu/nielseninsights/pdfs/Nielsen%20Global%20Health%20and%20Wellness%20Report%20-%20January%202015.pdf, Jan. 2015. [Nov. 20, 2020].
G. Reddy & R.M. van Dam. “Food, culture, and identity in multicultural societies: Insights from Singapore”. Appetite, Vol. 149. 2020.
G.M. Chryssohoidis & A. Krystallis. “Organic consumers’ personal values research: Testing and validating the list of values (LOV) scale and implementing a value-based segmentation task”. Food Quality and Preference Vol. 16 no. 7, pp. 585-599. 2005.
Georgia Today. “Georgia is Italy 2.0 Beta Version”. Internet: http://georgiatoday.ge/news/11033/Georgia-is-Italy-2.0-%28Beta-Version%29. Jul. 2, 2018 [Dec. 24, 2020]
Gupta, N. (2011). Globalization does lead to change in consumer behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
H. Hwang & S. Nam. “The influence of consumers’ knowledge on their responses to genetically modified foods”. GM Crops and Food, Vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 146-157. 2021.
H. Reeves & S. Baden. “Gender and development: Concepts and definitions”. Report prepared for the Department for International Development (DFID). 2000.
H. Yang & L. Huang. “Research on influencing factors of halal food buying behavior by non-muslim consumers: A case study of ningxia in china”. Boletin Tecnico/Technical Bulletin, Vol. 55 no. 16, pp. 688-697. 2017.
H.C.M Van Trijp. “Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: Key issues in the context of the new EU legislation”. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 48, SUPPL. 1, pp. 41–48. 2009.
H.V. Evert, W. Brög and E. Erl. “Survey Design: The Past, the Present and the Future”. Stopher, P. and Stecher, C. Ed. Travel Survey Methods, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 75-93. 2006.
J. Hwang, K. Lee & T.N. Lin. “Ingredient labeling and health claims influencing consumer perceptions, purchase intentions, and willingness to pay”. Journal of Foodservice Business Research Taylor & Francis. Vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 352-367. 2016.
J.J. Cambra-Fierro, J.A. Flores-Hernández, L. Pérez & G. Valera-Blanes. “CSR and branding in emerging economies: The effect of incomes and education”. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, Vol. 27 no. 6, pp. 2765-2776. 2020.
K. Boobalan & G.S. Nachimuthu. “Organic consumerism: A comparison between india and the USA”. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 53, 101988. 2020.
K.A. Mottaleb, D.B. Rahut, G. Kruseman & O. Erenstein. “Evolving food consumption patterns of rural and urban households in developing countries: a Bangladesh case”. British Food Journal, Vol. 120 no. 2, pp. 392-408. 2018.
K.R. Curtis, J.J. McCluskey & T.I. Wahl. “Consumer acceptance of genetically modified food products in the developing world”. AgBioForum, Vol. 7 no. 1-2, pp. 70-75. 2004.
L. Kotilainen, R. Rajalahti, C. Ragasa & E. Pehu, E. “Health enhancing foods: opportunities for strengthening developing countries (English)”. Internet: http://www.worldbank.org/: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/314421468324275640/Health-enhancing-foods-opportunities-for-strengthening-developing-countries. Jun. 1, 2006. [Dec. 24, 2020]
L. S. Alaimo, M. Fiore & A. Galati. “How the COVID-19 pandemic is changing online food shopping human behaviour in Italy”. Sustainability (Switzerland), Vol. 12 no. 22, pp. 1-18. 2020.
López-Mas, L., Claret, A., Reinders, M.J., Banovic, M., Krystallis, A. & Guerrero, L. "Farmed or wild fish? Segmenting European consumers based on their beliefs", Aquaculture, vol. 532. 2021.
Luna, D., & Gupta, S. F. (2001). An integrative framework for cross-cultural consumer behavior. International marketing review.
M. B. Roberfroid. “A European Consensus of Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods”. Nutrition Vol 16, no. 7-8, pp. 689-691. 2000.
M. Bazhan, N. Kalantari, N. Keshavarz-Mohammadi, H. Hosseini, H., Eini-Zinab & H. Alavi-Majd. “Applying social marketing mix to identify consumers’ preferences towards functional dairy products in Iran”. Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 48 no 1, pp. 45-60. 2018.
M. Fiore, C. Gallo, E. Tsoukatos & P. La Sala. “Predicting consumer healthy choices regarding type 1 wheat flour”. British Food Journal Vol. 119 no. 11, pp. 2388-2405. 2017.
M. Gómez, D. Martín-Consuegra, E. Díaz & A. Molina. “Determinants and outcomes of price premium and loyalty: A food case study”. Journal of Consumer Behaviour Vol. 16, no 1, pp. 82-98. 2017.
M. Tetruashvili, Z. Tetruashvili, I. Tetruashvili. “Own Business: Meeting Target Needs (Part Two)”. Tbilisi, Georgia: ShKSU Comp. centre. 2008.
M.P. Couper. “The Future of Modes of Data Collection”. Public Opinion Quarterly Vol. 75 no. 5, pp. 889-908. 2011.
Mghebrishvili B. “situation of health and welfare in georgia in the context of sustainable development and sustainable marketing”. Ecoforum vol. 8, no. 1(18), pp. 1-9. 2019.
N. Beburidze. “Intenational Marketing of Georgian Cuisine”. M.A. thesis. Caucasian International University, Georgia. 2018. Internet: https://openscience.ge/bitstream/1/89/1/Natia%20Beburidze.pdf.
N. Kaur & D.P. Singh. “Deciphering the consumer behaviour facets of functional foods: A literature review”. Appetite, Vol. 112, pp. 167–187. 2017.
N. Todua. “Influence of Food Labeling Awareness on Healthy Behavior of Georgian Consumers”. Ecoforum Vol 6, no. 2(11). 2017.
Naspetti, S., Mandolesi, S., Buysse, J., Latvala, T., Nicholas, P., Padel, S., Van Loo, E.J. & Zanoli, R. "Consumer perception of sustainable practices in dairy production", Agricultural and Food Economics, vol. 9, no. 1. 2021.
Nunnaly, J. Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1978.
P. Parrott & K. Walley. “Consumer attitudes to poultry meat” in Poultry quality evaluation: Quality attributes and consumer values. 1st ed. M. Petracci & C. Berri Ed. Woodhead Publishing 2017, pp. 313-334.
P. Suwannaporn, A. Linnemann & R. Chaveesuk "Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts", British Food Journal, vol. 110, no. 6, pp. 595-606. 2008.
Q. Chaudhry & L. Castle. “Food applications of nanotechnologies: an overview of opportunities and challenges for developing countries”. Trends in Food Science & Technology, Vol. 22 no 11, pp. 595–603. 2011.
R. Lindberg, J. McCartan, A. Stone, A. Gale, A. Mika, M. Nguyen & S. Kleve. “The impact of social enterprise on food insecurity – an australian case study”. Health and Social Care in the Community, Vol. 27 no. 4, pp. e355-e366. 2019.
Rao M, Afshin A, Singh G, Mozaffarian D. “Do healthier foods and diet patterns cost more than less healthy options? A systematic review and meta-analysis” BMJ Open Vol. 3, no. 12. 2013. 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004277
S. De Dominicis, F. Bonaiuto, F. Fornara, U.G. Cancellieri, I. Petruccelli, W.D. Crano, G. Ma & M. Bonaiuto. “Food reputation and food preferences: Application of the food reputation map (FRM) in Italy, USA, and china”. Frontiers in Psychology, 2020.
S. Lee, J. Workman & K. Jung. “Perception of time, creative attitudes, and adoption of innovations: A cross-cultural study from chinese and US college students”. Sustainability (Switzerland), Vol. 8 no. 11. 2016.
S. Mancini, R. Moruzzo, F. Riccioli & G. Paci. “European consumers' readiness to adopt insects as food. A review”. Food Research International, Vol. 122, pp. 661-678. 2019.
S. Morris. “Attitudes and behaviours towards healthy eating and food safety: a scoping study (2009)”. Internet: http://westminsterresearch.wmin.ac.uk/id/eprint/9598. Aug. 10, 2011 [Dec. 24, 2020]
Santos, J. R. A. “Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales”. Journal of extension, 37(2), 1-5. 1999
Spognardi, S., Vistocco, D., Cappelli, L., Papetti, P. “Impact of organic and “protected designation of origin” labels in the perception of olive oil sensory quality”. British Food Journal. 2021. DOI: 10.1108/BFJ-07-2020-0596.
Stankevich A. “Explaining the Consumer Decision-Making Process: Critical Literature Review”. Journal of International Business Research and Marketing Vol 2, Issue 6, pp 7-14. 2017.
T. Ran, C. Yue & A. Rihn. “Does Nutrition Information Contribute to Grocery Shoppers’ Willingness to Pay? View Correspondence”. Journal of Food Products Marketing Vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 591-608. 2017.
T. Zijlstra, K. Wijgergangs & S. Hoogendoorn-Lanser. “Computer assisted web-interviewing with mixed-devices: a panel study perspective”. The Netherlands Mobility Panel Publications, KiM Netherlands Institute for Transportation Policy Analysis, The Hague, the Netherlands. 2017.
Taufique, K. M. R., & Vaithianathan, S. (2018). A fresh look at understanding Green consumer behavior among young urban Indian consumers through the lens of Theory of Planned Behavior. Journal of cleaner production, 183, 46-55.
Timpanaro, G., Bellia, C., Foti, V.T. & Scuderi, A. "Consumer behaviour of purchasing biofortified food products", Sustainability (Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 16. 2020.
Todua N. “attitude of georgian consumers to healthy nutrition”. Conference proceeding “IISES International Academic Conference, Rome, Italy, pp. 208-219. 2019. Doi: 10.20472/IAC.2019.046.025
Todua N. “Georgian consumers awareness about the benefits associated with healthy nutrition”. International Journal of Business no. 1, pp. 11-18. 2018
Todua N. “georgian consumers’ perception of domestic and foreign products”. Retrieved from www.geoeconomics.ge : http://geoeconomics.ge/en/?p=2394. Nov. 18, 2008 [Feb. 25, 2021]
Todua N., & Jashi C. “Influence of Social Marketing on the Behavior of Georgian Consumers Regarding Healthy Nutrition”. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences. 12, no.2, pp 183-190. 2018.
W. Verbeke. “Functional foods: Consumer willingness to compromise on taste for health?” Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 17 no. 1–2, pp. 126–131. 2006.
World Bank. “World Bank Open Data”. Internet: https://data.worldbank.org/. Dec. 2019. [Dec. 14, 2020]
Y. Algan & P. Cahu. “Social Attitudes and Economic Development: An Epidemiological Approach”, IZA (Institute of Labor Economics) Discussion Papers 2935, 2007. Internet: https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp2935.html [Dec. 24, 2020]
Zhang, T., Grunert, K.G. & Zhou, Y. "A values–beliefs–attitude model of local food consumption: An empirical study in China and Denmark", Food Quality and Preference, vol. 83. 2020
Zhao, H. H., Gao, Q., Wu, Y. P., Wang, Y., & Zhu, X. D. (2014). What affects green consumer behavior in China? A case study from Qingdao. Journal of Cleaner Production, 63, 143-151.
Miss Adamashvili Nino
Department of Economics, University of Foggia, Foggia, 71121 - Italy
nino.adamashvili@unifg.it
Miss Shervashidze Salome
Faculty of Economics and Business, Batumi Shota Rustaveli State University, Batumi, 6010 - Georgia
Dr. Salvatore Fiorella Pia
Department of Economics, University of Foggia, Foggia, 71121 - Italy